Regarding different attacks that can affect a Linux install or network there are many different types of attacks that I could go over, however one attack that is becoming evermore common is Cryptojacking. According to malwarebytes.com, "Cryptojacking (also called malicious cryptomining) is an online threat that hides on a computer or mobile device and uses the machine’s resources to “mine” forms of online currency known as cryptocurrencies. Malicious cryptominers often come through web browser downloads or rogue mobile apps. Cryptojacking can compromise all kinds of devices, including desktops, laptops, smartphones, and even network servers.". However Cryptojacking can be implemented through several different methods too, such as an infected .iso image file or a BadShell type of attack. This type of attack can severely affect a Linux install or network by bottling down the hardware or network to discretely mine cryptocurrencies in the background. A way you can identify if this threat is active on your machine or network would be by monitoring your computer hardware usage and background processes.
To continue with the conversation of different attacks that can affect a Linux install or network another type of attack could be a DDoS (Denial of Service) attack. This type of attack is probably the most widely known of because of how easy this type of attack can be accomplished if proper security is not in place. According to cloudflare.com, "A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is a malicious attempt to disrupt the normal traffic of a targeted server, service or network by overwhelming the target or its surrounding infrastructure with a flood of Internet traffic.". There are many different ways to secure yourself from a DDoS attack, most importantly having a secure and properly configured firewall.
Cryptojacking – What is it, and how does it work? (n.d.). Malwarebytes. https://www.malwarebytes.com/cryptojacking
What is a DDoS attack? | Cloudflare. (n.d.). Cloudflare - The Web Performance & Security Company. https://www.cloudflare.com/learning/ddos/what-is-a-ddos-attack/